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(Contact Info: larry at larryblakeley dot com)

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I manage this Web site and the following Web sites: Leslie (Blakeley) Adkins - my oldest daughter

Lori Ann Blakeley (June 20, 1985 - May 4, 2005) - my middle daughter

Evan Blakeley- my youngest child


As technology transforms the flow of information and ideas everywhere, publishers who participate in CrossRef are pleased to offer the scholarly community a milestone for electronic publishing - a collaborative, cross-publisher reference linking service that turns citations into hyperlinks, allowing researchers to navigate online literature at the article level. CrossRef is a wholly independent association of scholarly and professional publishers - large and small, commercial and non-profit, traditional and non-traditional - that cooperate to provide reference links into and out of their electronic content.

A separate FastFacts page on OpenURL and CrossRef http://www.crossref.org/03libraries/16openurl.html is available.

The following are some of CrossRef's fast facts from the Web page http://www.crossref.org/01company/16fastfacts.html

CrossRef's mission:
To serve as the complete citation linking backbone for all scholarly literature online, as a means of lowering barriers to content discovery and access for the researcher. We are currently expanding our citation linking services beyond journal articles, to conference proceedings and books.

What CrossRef is:
A not-for-profit network founded on publisher collaboration, with a mandate to make reference linking throughout online scholarly literature efficient and reliable. As such, it is an infrastructure for linking citations across publishers, and the only full-scale implementation of the Digital Object Identifier (or DOI) System to date. (see below for information on the DOI system).

What CrossRef is not:

- A product for sale
- An article database
- A direct-to-end-user service
- A search interface
- A broker of full-text content
- Made up of just big commercial publishers

CrossRef is not an article database:
CrossRef does not aggregate full-text content. Rather, it uses a system of “distributed aggregation” whereby full-text content is linked through a database consisting of minimal publisher metadata. Each record in the database is essentially a triplet: {metadata + URL+DOI}.

How researchers use CrossRef:
A researcher clicking on a CrossRef link will be automatically connected to a page on the publisher's website showing a full bibliographical citation of the article, and, in most cases, the abstract as well. Subscribers are generally authenticated for full text access, and non-subscribed users presented with other options for access. (such as subscription, document delivery, or pay-per-view.) Researchers in library environments may find that CrossRef links redirect to local holdings.

CrossRef's mission:
To serve as the complete citation linking backbone for all scholarly literature online, as a means of lowering barriers to content discovery and access for the researcher. We are currently expanding our citation linking services beyond journal articles, to conference proceedings and books.

Who developed CrossRef?
Scholarly publishers developed CrossRef. The initial service was based on a prototype developed by John Wiley & Sons and Academic Press, in cooperation with the International DOI Foundation (IDF). It built on the DOI-X project led by the IDF, Association of American Publishers (AAP) and the Corporation for National Research Initiatives (CNRI) http://www.larryblakeley.com/information%20technology%20initiatives_%20programs/corporation_national_research_initiatives.htm.

Who participates in CrossRef:
Any publisher of primary research material in digital form -- whether large or small, commercial or non-profit, traditional or non-traditional - can register their content with CrossRef by joining our growing list of members.

A variety of other organizations also participate:

- Libraries use the CrossRef system as part of their localized linking solutions, enriching online catalogues and databases with links to their own full-text holdings where appropriate.
- Intermediaries, including secondary publishers and journal hosting services, use CrossRef as affiliates and agents, enhancing their own products and content offerings with DOI-based citation links.
- Technology companies are creating software tools that interface with CrossRef.

Key benefits of the CrossRef system:

- No state links: Because a DOI link is a persistent link, unlike a URL , publishers and others who use CrossRef create reliable, persistent links in citations and database records.
- A single agreement with CrossRef serves as a linking agreement with all participating publishers. Avoid having to sign numerous bilateral linking agreements with publishers.
- Add value to your electronic publications: Readers have come to expect online material to contain outbound links to cited sources. At the same time, CrossRef linking will augment the accessibility of your content through inbound links.

How the system works and what publishers have to do:

Publishers of electronic scholarly content join as members and are assigned a DOI prefix. For each content item a publisher wishes to register in the system, it creates a unique DOI (incorporating the assigned prefix) and tags it to the article’s metadata and the URL where the article resides. The publisher submits the record to the CrossRef metadata database (MDDB) in a strict XML-based DTD format. CrossRef then registers each article DOI and URL in a central DOI directory. This allows for permanent inbound links to the publisher’s content, because other publishers, librarians, and affiliates (such as subscription agents and secondary publishers) can retrieve from CrossRef the DOIs that link to that content. For more information on the registration process, see our submission spec http://www.crossref.org/02publishers/24upload_spec.html.

In a separate process, the publisher also submits the citations contained in each deposited article to the Reference Resolver, the front-end component of the MDDB that allows for the retrieval of DOIs. This way, the publisher can, as part of its electronic production process, add outbound links to any of an article’s citations that point to content already registered in the CrossRef system. The CrossRef website includes technical specifications for querying http://www.crossref.org/02publishers/25query_spec.html and a demo of the DOI look-up process http://www.crossref.org/04intermediaries/doi_lookup_demo.html. If you know the DOI for an article, that’s all you need to know in order to locate it persistently. If a publisher changes the location of an article, it need only update the URL for the article in one place with CrossRef.

What a DOI is:
A unique alphanumeric string assigned to a digital object – in this case, an electronic journal article or a book chapter. In the CrossRef system, each DOI is associated with a set of basic metadata and a URL pointer to the full text, so that it uniquely identifies the content item and provides a persistent link to its location on the internet.

The DOI Resolution system is run by CNRI on behalf of the IDF. When a user clicks on a link containing the DOI, the DOI Resolution system directs the user to the URL submitted by the publisher. The process of resolving a DOI happens outside of CrossRef.

What a DOI is (from DOI's Web page http://www.doi.org/news/DOINewsNov04.html#1):
The DOI is a system for interoperably identifying and exchanging intellectual property in the digital environment. A DOI assigned to content enhances a content producer's ability to trade electronically. It provides a framework for managing content in any form at any level of granularity, for linking customers with content suppliers, for facilitating electronic commerce, and enabling automated copyright management for all types of media. The International DOI Foundation, a non-profit organization, manages development, policy and licensing of the DOI to registration agencies and technology providers and advises on usage and development of related services and technologies. The DOI system uses open standards with a standard syntax (ANSI/NISO Z39.84) and is currently used by leading international technology and content organizations. http://www.doi.org/news/DOINewsNov04.html#1

For more information on the DOI itself, which is a NISO standard syntax, please visit the International DOI Foundation website at http://www.doi.org.